The descending loop of Henle receives isotonic (300 mOsm/L) fluid from the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). The descending portion of the loop of Henle is extremely permeable to water and is less permeable to ions, therefore water is easily reabsorbed here and solutes are not readily reabsorbed.
This part of the nephron is called the loop of Henle. Its main function is to reabsorb water and sodium chloride from the filtrate. This conserves water for the organism, producing highly concentrated urine.
Also, are there aquaporins in the descending loop of Henle? Aquaporin-1 is not expressed in descending thin limbs of short-loop nephrons. In mammalian kidneys, aquaporin-1 is responsible for water reabsorption along the proximal tubule and is also thought to be involved in the concentration of urine that occurs in the medulla.
Secondly, what is the main substance that moves out of the descending loop of Henle?
The three segments of the loops of Henle have different characteristics that enable countercurrent multiplication. The thin descending limb is passively permeable to both water and small solutes such as sodium chloride and urea.
Where is the descending limb of the loop of Henle?
Descending limb of loop of Henle. Scheme of renal tubule and its vascular supply. (Labeled at center left.) Within the nephron of the kidney, the descending limb of loop of Henle is the portion of the renal tubule constituting the first part of the loop of Henle.
What are the three major functions of the loop of Henle?
The loop of Henle carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the renal medulla and back to the renal cortex. There are three functional divisions: the thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, and thick ascending limb.
How does the loop of Henle help to conserve water?
Renal conservation of water. The kidney conserves water by first diluting urine as it moves through the loop of Henle and then concentrating urine in the distal tubules and collecting ducts (the latter under the influence of antidiuretic hormone or ADH).
Where is water reabsorbed in the nephron?
The first part of the nephron that is responsible for water reabsorption is the proximal convoluted tubule. Filtered fluid enters the proximal tubule from Bowman’s capsule. Many substances that the body needs, which may have been filtered out of the blood at the glomerulus, are reabsorbed into the body in this segment.
What happens to water in the loop of Henle?
In summary, the loop of Henle is surrounded by tissue fluid which has a high concentration of ions in it. This causes water to move out of the descending limb by osmosis. Because of this concentration gradient ions move into the loop in the thin ascending limb.
What is the main function of the distal convoluted tubule?
Once the filtrate passes through the thick ascending limb of Henle, it enters the distal convoluted tubule, which is a duct of the renal tubule located in the kidney’s cortex that reabsorbs calcium, sodium, and chloride and regulates the pH of urine by secreting protons and absorbing bicarbonate.
What is the function of the Bowman’s capsule?
Bowman’s capsule (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sack at the beginning of the tubular component of a nephron in the mammalian kidney that performs the first step in the filtration of blood to form urine. A glomerulus is enclosed in the sac.
Which statement is true ADH?
Which statement is TRUE regarding antidiuretic hormone (ADH)? ADH increases the permeability of the late distal tubule and cortical collecting ducts to water. Reabsorption of filtered glucose from the filtrate into the cells of the proximal tubule is by: secondary active transport.
What does the proximal convoluted tubule do?
The proximal tubule efficiently regulates the pH of the filtrate by exchanging hydrogen ions in the interstitium for bicarbonate ions in the filtrate; it is also responsible for secreting organic acids, such as creatinine and other bases, into the filtrate.
What occurs in the loop of Henle?
Loop of Henle. Loop of Henle, long, U-shaped portion of the tubule that conducts urine within each nephron (q.v.) of the kidney of reptiles, birds, and mammals. The principal function of the loop of Henle appears to be the recovery of water and sodium chloride from the urine.
What is the countercurrent mechanism Why is it important?
The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to produce the hyperosmotic Medullary Interstitium. The ADH promotes water reabsorption through the walls of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. The function of the Countercurrent exchanger “vasa recta” is to maintain hyperosmolar medulla.
What is reabsorbed in the distal convoluted tubule?
Sodium and potassium levels are controlled by secreting K+ and absorbing Na+. Sodium absorption by the distal tubule is mediated by the hormone aldosterone. Aldosterone increases sodium reabsorption. Sodium and chloride (salt) reabsorption is also mediated by a group of kinases called WNK kinases.
What does the Vasa recta do?
Vasa Recta Function The vasa recta, the capillary networks that supply blood to the medulla, are highly permeable to solute and water. As with the loop of Henle, the vasa recta form a parallel set of hairpin loops within the medulla (see Chapter 2).
What substances are reabsorbed?
Most of the Ca++, Na+, glucose, and amino acids must be reabsorbed by the nephron to maintain homeostatic plasma concentrations. Other substances, such as urea, K+, ammonia (NH3), creatinine, and some drugs are secreted into the filtrate as waste products.
What is reabsorbed in the collecting duct?
The collecting duct system is the final component of the kidney to influence the body’s electrolyte and fluid balance. In humans, the system accounts for 4–5% of the kidney’s reabsorption of sodium and 5% of the kidney’s reabsorption of water.